The American Society of Anesthesiologists designates this journal-based activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Maintenance of Certification in Anesthesiology™ program and MOCA® are registered trademarks of The American Board of Anesthesiology®. MOCA 2.0® is a trademark of the American Board of Anesthesiology®.
This activity contributes to the CME component of the American Board of Anesthesiology’s redesigned Maintenance of Certification in AnesthesiologyTM (MOCA®) program, known as MOCA 2.0®. Please consult the ABA website, www.theABA.org, for a list of all MOCA 2.0 requirements.
The American Society of Anesthesiologists remains strongly committed to providing the best available evidence-based clinical information to participants of this educational activity and requires an open disclosure of any potential conflict of interest identified by our faculty members. It is not the intent of the American Society of Anesthesiologists to eliminate all situations of potential conflict of interest, but rather to enable those who are working with the American Society of Anesthesiologists to recognize situations that may be subject to question by others. All disclosed conflicts of interest are reviewed by the educational activity course director/chair to ensure that such situations are properly evaluated and, if necessary, resolved. The American Society of Anesthesiologists educational standards pertaining to conflict of interest are intended to maintain the professional autonomy of the clinical experts inherent in promoting a balanced presentation of science. Through our review process, all American Society of Anesthesiologists education activities are ensured of independent, objective, scientifically balanced presentations of information. Disclosure of any or no relationships will be made available for all educational activities.
This journal article has been selected for and planned as a journal CME activity, which is designated for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. The authors disclosed relationships in keeping with Anesthesiology’s requirements for all journal submissions. All relationships journal authors disclosed to Anesthesiology are disclosed to learners, even those relationships that are not relevant financial relationships, per the ACCME’s requirements for CME activities.
Editor-in-Chief: Evan D. Kharasch, M.D., Ph.D., has reported receiving consulting fees from TEN Healthcare.
CME Editors: Leslie C. Jameson, M.D., has disclosed no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests. Dan J. Kopacz, M.D., has disclosed holding an equity position
with SoloDex, LLC.
ASA Staff: Kari Lee and Anne Farace have disclosed no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests.
Authors: Oliver Grottke, M.D., Ph.D., and Sam Schulman, M.D., Ph.D., have disclosed no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests.